ITK Board of Directors Adopts Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait as Unified Orthography for Inuktut
September 26, 2019, Ottawa, Ontario – The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Board of Directors agreed to move forward with a unified orthography for Inuktut during its meeting in Rankin Inlet this month. The new orthography will be implemented as an auxiliary system alongside the existing orthographies used regionally.
The Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait orthography was developed by Inuktut language experts over the past eight years. Throughout that time, members of ITK’s Atausiq Inuktut Titirausiq Task Group and later, the Atausiq Inuktut Titirausiq Development Team, consulted widely with elders, teachers and other key users of Inuktut.
There are currently nine different Inuktut writing systems across Inuit Nunangat introduced since the mid-1700s. Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait has been developed by Inuit, for Inuit.
Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait is a common set of symbols for Inuktut sounds that allows written text to reflect spoken words in any dialect of Inuktut. It is based on the Roman alphabet, which is already used as a primary or a secondary script in all regions of Inuit Nunangat.
Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait is both easy to learn and easy to use, allowing those who have already learned another Inuit writing system to easily adapt while simultaneously providing a solid foundation for first-time Inuktut language learners.
The ITK Board of Directors resolution reads, in part: “Whereas the utility of the proposed orthography has been tested and it has been determined that it is easier for Inuit to write and read material from other regions with ease using the proposed Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait orthography, including ease of typing on a keyboard by eliminating the need for diacritics; therefore be it resolved that the proposed Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait orthography is approved.” It was moved by Charlie Watt, President of Makivik Corporation, Seconded by Johannes Lampe, President of Nunatsiavut, and carried unanimously.
Implementation plans specific to the needs and wishes of each region of Inuit Nunangat will be developed through an expert subcommittee made up of representatives from Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Makivik Corporation and the Nunatsiavut Government and reporting to the National Inuit Committee on Education.
It has long been understood that an Inuit-centered education system must be bilingual and restore the central role of the Inuit language. The public education system has not significantly incorporated Inuktut into its structure and Inuktut language resources are still limited. Adequate resources are key components for developing curriculum standards and supporting systems in providing Inuit-centered learning environments and positive outcomes for students and bilingual teachers.
Since the 1970s the discussion around promoting and supporting the continued use of Inuktut in schools across Canada’s four Inuit regions has included a deeply rooted debate about introducing a unified Inuit writing system to promote communication across dialects and the development of common learning materials.
ITK thanks Inuktut language experts across Inuit Nunangat who have contributed to the development of Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait, and the Counselling Foundation of Canada, which has contributed $1 million toward supporting the exploration and development of a new orthography for Inuktut since 2012.
“Approval of Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait is a crucial step toward strengthening Inuktut across Inuit Nunangat. It also fulfills a key recommendation in the 2011 National Strategy on Inuit Education, which highlighted the need for a unified orthography in educational resources and communication materials. It is a critical step in Inuit self-determination and taking ownership of our written language. Our current writing systems were introduced through the process of colonization. The unified Inuktut writing system will be a writing system created by Inuit for Inuit in Canada.”
– Natan Obed, President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
“IRC is examining all alternative methods to preserve our Inuvialuktun language; if this means to unify with other Inuit regions to have a common Inuktut orthography than we must realize this now due to the urgency of low Inuvialuktun proficiency levels. We are fortunate to have 20 per cent of our population fluent in Inuvialuktun, but the next three generations are not proficient in the language. A common orthography means the sharing of resources and curriculum across Inuit Nunangat, thus providing a more effective method of learning Inuvialuktun, sadly as a second language.”
– Duane Smith, Chair and CEO, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
This work in standardization of a unified Qaliujaaqpait Inuktut writing system demonstrates Inuit adaptability and resourcefulness as we embrace contemporary life in a globally connected world. Within Nunavut, we will continue to use Qaniujaaqpait (syllabics), and will work with regional and national partners in adoption and use of our newly adopted Inuktut Orthography.
– Aluki Kotierk, President, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
“Approving a writing system that has been developed by Inuit follows a long legacy of careful thought and consideration. Now is the time to move forward with a unified writing system to protect and preserve our language for our youth.”
– Charlie Watt Sr., President, Makivik Corporation
“Our language is in danger of disappearing. The Nunatsiavut Government welcomes the development of a unified writing system, as we strongly believe it will help to enhance, promote and revitalize Inuttitut. Having a common orthography will provide all Inuit with a more effective way of communicating with each other throughout Inuit Nunangat.”
– Johannes Lampe, President of Nunatsiavut
“Revitalization of Inuktut continues to be a priority of the National Inuit Youth Council. We acknowledge that our language is at risk of being lost at no fault of our own and we welcome this resolution from the ITK Board. We look forward to continuing our work with the committee in advancing the unified writing system that will revitalize and strengthen our Inuktut language for future generations to come.”
– Crystal Martin-Lapenskie, President, the National Inuit Youth Council
For more information:
Why was Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait developed?
There is currently no single writing system used throughout Inuit Nunangat. Different regions use different writing systems, and often different variants of a writing system exist in the same region. This creates a barrier to communicating and sharing materials between regions because while Inuit can generally understand each other’s spoken dialects, it is more difficult to read other dialect-specific writing systems. People trying to develop written materials also face uncertainty over which writing system or spelling conventions they should use.
Why was roman orthography chosen for the Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait?
Some main considerations for basing the unified writing system on the roman alphabet were:
- Ease of typing/texting/use with information technology – Inuit will be able to use the technology and keyboards they already have and will not have to deal with different keyboard layouts or special fonts or characters.
- Younger Inuit in syllabics-using regions mostly already know the roman alphabet.
- Roman orthography also allows some options to include sounds (such as f, ch, rh, etc.) that exist in some Inuit dialects but that don’t have standardized symbols in the syllabic writing system
It is important to remember that the roman alphabet doesn’t belong only to the English language. It’s a very old set of symbols that has been used across the globe to promote national orthographies in language and publications.
What are the benefits of using Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait?
The benefits of the Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait include having a common set of symbols representative of all Inuktut sounds. This way speakers of any dialect from any region can write using the Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait while still following the pronunciation that they use in their own dialects. This makes it easier to read each other’s dialects and means Inuktut speakers are able to produce and share materials between regions. Over time, there will be greater consistency in Inuktut language education. Ultimately, it facilitates the use of Inuktut over time as a working language for business and higher education.
Does Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait use syllabics ?
Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait uses roman orthography to ensure it can be written in any Inuktut dialect. It is important to note that Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait does not replace syllabics – regions can and will continue use of syllabics and other distinct writing systems. There is no expectation that people who already use older writing systems will have to change the way they write. Older writing systems will continue to be taught to younger generations.
Who developed this writing system?
Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait was developed by Inuit regions, through ITK’s Atausiq Inuktut Titirausiq Task Group, and later by the Atausiq Inuktut Titirausiq Development Team. The goal of both groups was to develop a writing system that was inclusive of dialectal sounds used within each region.
Is Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait based on a particular dialect?
The explicit aim of the Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait was that it could be used to write any Inuit dialect spoken in Canada. This is why it includes sounds from every dialect – including sounds that only occur in a few dialects – so that speakers of every dialect can write their own dialect using Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait according to the words and pronunciation they normally use. This means that within Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait there may be still be variations in how a word is spelled depending on how it is pronounced in the dialect of the writer, but there will be a consistent relationship between how a word is spelled and how it is pronounced.
Will Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait be used for translations?
Any written material produced in Inuktut, whether an original text or a translation, can be written using Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait.
Do I need a special computer font?
Because Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait uses roman orthography, there are no special characters or font required.
How will Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait be taught?
Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait is both easy to learn and easy to use, allowing those who have already learned another Inuit writing system to adapt while simultaneously providing a solid foundation for first-time Inuktut language learners. ITK and Inuit regions will convene an implementation committee to develop next steps. Implementation plans will be specific to each region’s needs and will look at how Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait will be taught and learned. In the short term, ITK and regional experts will present to interested groups upon request.
Does this mean there are going to be standard rules for Inuktut spelling and grammar?
As it stands, Inuktut Qaliujaaqpait does not include any standard spelling or grammar rules. It is simply a standard set of characters standing for the sounds of Inuktut.
ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᑦ ᑎᒍᓯᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕈᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ
ᓯᑎᐱᕆ 26, 2019, ᐋᑐᕚ, ᐋᓐᑎᐅᕆᐅ − ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐃᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᑦ ᐊᖏᕈᑎᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᓯᕗᒧᐊᑦᑕᐅᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᓂᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᕐᒥ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᒥ. ᑖᓐᓇ ᓄᑖᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᖅ ᑐᖔᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᒌᖅᑐᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓰᑦ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂ.
ᑖᓐᓇ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓕᕆᔨᒻᒪᕆᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ ᓯᑕᒪᐅᔪᖅᑐᑦ ᖄᖏᖅᑐᓂ. ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕐᓂᓕᒫᖏᓐᓂ, ᐃᓚᐅᖃᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒥ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᖑᓂᐊᒍᑦ, ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᑦ, ᐅᖃᕆᐊᕐᕕᖃᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓐᓇᕐᓂᒃ, ᐃᓕᓴᐃᔨᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ.
ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᖁᓕᐅᙱᒐᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓰᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᑰᔪᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᙵᓂᒃ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᐃᑦ 1700 ᐊᑯᓐᓂᖏᑦᑕ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ, ᑐᕌᖓᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ.
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᖏᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᒃᑯᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᓂᐱᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᑎᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᓱᑎᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᓇᓪᓕᑐᐃᓐᓇᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᒎᓯᖃᑎᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ. ᐱᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᕉᒪᒥᐅᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᖏᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᒌᖅᓱᓂ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᒋᐊᙵᖅᑐᖅ ᑐᖏᓕᕆᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ.
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐱᔭᕆᐊᑭᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓕᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍᓗ, ᐱᕕᑦᓴᖃᖅᑎᑦᓯᓪᓗᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᒌᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᐊᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᔭᕆᐊᑭᑦᑐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᓐᓇᓕᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᑕᕝᕘᓇᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᕐᓗ ᑐᙵᕕᖃᑦᓯᐊᓕᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕐᒥ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᐃᑦ.
ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᓯᓂᖓᑦ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᕋᑦᓴᐅᔪᖅ, ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓇᖓ: “ᑕᒪᑐᒨᓇ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᖓ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅᑖᖑᖁᔭᐅᔪᖅ ᐆᑦᑐᕋᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᖅᓱᓂ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᓱᓂᓗ ᐱᔭᕆᐊᑭᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᒋᐊᖓ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᓄᓪᓗ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖏᓐᓂ ᐱᓯᒪᔪᓂ ᐱᔭᕆᐊᑭᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅᑖᖑᖁᔭᐅᔪᖅ, ᐱᔭᕆᐅᑭᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᓇᕿᑦᑕᕆᐊᖓ ᖃᕆᑕᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᕆᐊᑐᙱᓪᓗᓂ ᑎᑎᖅᑐᖅᓯᒪᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ; ᑕᐃᒪᐃᒻᒪᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑕᐅᕗᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖁᔭᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᖏᖅᑕᐅᓂᒃᑯᑦ.” ᓂᕈᐊᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᓵᓕ ᒍᐊᑦᒧᑦ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ ᒪᑭᕕᒃ ᑯᐊᐳᕇᓴᑦ, ᐊᐃᑉᐱᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᔪᕼᐋᓇᔅ ᓛᒻᑉ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᒻᒥ, ᐊᖏᖅᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᑲᑎᒪᔩᑦ.
ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐸᕐᓇᐅᑏᑦ ᑐᕌᖓᔪᑦ ᐱᒋᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᑦᑕ ᐱᒍᒪᓂᖏᑦᑕᓗ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᖅᑯᑎᐅᓗᑎᑦ ᓄᑖᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᒻᒪᕇᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᕋᓛᑦ ᑲᑎᖅᓱᖅᓯᒪᓂᖃᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᑭᒡᒐᖅᑐᐃᔪᓂ ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ ᑯᐊᐳᕇᓴᑦ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃ, ᒪᑭᕕᒃ ᑯᐊᐳᕇᓴᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ ᒐᕙᒪᒃᑯᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᑖᓂᓐᓂᐊᖅᓱᑎᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᓕᒫᒥ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᑦᑕ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ.
ᐊᑯᓂᐅᓕᖅᑐᖅ ᑐᑭᓯᒪᔭᐅᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᖃᕐᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕈᑏᑦ ᐱᑕᖃᕆᐊᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᓪᓗ ᐅᑎᖅᑎᑕᐅᓗᓂᓗ ᐊᑐᓪᓚᕆᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖓᑦ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕖᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᓂᒃ ᐃᓚᐅᑎᑦᓯᓗᐊᖅᓯᒪᙱᒻᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑏᓪᓗ ᐊᒥᒐᐃᓐᓇᖅᓱᑎᑦ. ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖃᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓂᒃ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᓴᓇᔭᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᐃᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓯᒍᑎᑦᓴᐃᓪᓗ ᐱᑕᖃᑦᓯᐊᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᓴᓇᔭᐅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓂᒃ ᑐᙵᕕᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑲᔪᓯᑦᓯᐊᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓪᓗᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓴᐃᔨᐅᔪᑦ.
ᑕᐃᒪᙵᓂᑦ 1970 ᐊᕐᕌᒍᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᐊᔭᐅᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᓱᓂᓗ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᒋᐊᖃᕐᓂᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕕᓐᓂ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᓯᑕᒪᓂᒃ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓗᓕᖃᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᐋᔩᖃᑎᒌᓪᓚᕆᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᖃᕐᓂᖓᑕ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᖃᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᑕᐃᒎᓯᖃᑎᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᓇᔭᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᓐᓂᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᐃᑦ.
ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥᒃᑯᑦ ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓪᓚᕆᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ ᐃᑲᔪᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ, ᓴᓇᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃᑯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ, ᑐᓂᓯᓯᒪᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᓂ $1-ᒥᓕᐊᓐᓂᒃ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᒋᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᒍᑎᑦᓴᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑲᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᙵᓂᒃ 2012.
“ᐊᖏᖅᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᓯᕗᒧᐊᒍᑎᐅᓂᐊᖅᓱᓂᓗ ᓴᙱᓕᕆᐊᕐᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓘᓐᓇᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖏᓐᓂ. ᐃᓗᓪᓖᒋᐊᕈᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᐱᖁᔨᕗᖔᕈᑎᐅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ 2011 ᑲᓇᑕᓕᒫᒥ ᖃᓄᖅᑑᕈᑏᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᖓᓄᑦ, ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᒍᑕᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᑕᖃᕆᐊᖃᕆᐊᖓ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᐅᕙᑦᑐᓄᓪᓗ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᐊᓪᓗᕆᐊᕈᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖅᓱᕈᒪᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑎᒍᓯᒍᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᑦᑎᓐᓂ. ᒫᓐᓇ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓰᑦ ᖃᐃᑕᐅᓯᒪᒻᒪᑕ ᐊᓯᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᓂᒃᑯᑦ. ᑖᓐᓇ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᓴᓇᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᑐᕌᖓᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ.
– ᓇᑖᓐ ᐅᕙᑦ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ
“ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᑦ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᓂᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᐅᓕᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖓᓐᓂᒃ; ᐃᓚᐅᒋᐊᖃᕈᑦᑕ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᕐᒥ ᒫᓐᓇ ᐅᔾᔨᕆᒋᐊᖃᓕᖅᑕᕗᑦ ᑐᐊᕕᕐᓇᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᖃᑦᓰᓐᓇᐅᓗᐊᓕᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᒃᑐᓐ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᓪᓚᕆᑦᑐᑦ. ᐱᐅᔫᒐᓗᐊᖅ 20−ᐳᓴᓐᖏᑦ ᐃᓄᖁᑎᑦᑕ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᑦᓯᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᒃᑐᓐ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᑭᖑᕚᖏᑦ ᐊᔪᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᑐᖃᕐᒥᒍᑦ. ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᑕᐅᖅᓰᖃᑎᒌᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑲᔫᑎᑦᓴᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓂᓪᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ, ᑕᐃᒪᐃᒻᒪᑦ ᐃᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᓐᓇᓂᖅᓴᐅᓂᐊᖅᓱᑎᑦ ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᒃᑐᓐ, ᐅᒡᒍᓇᖅᑑᒐᓗᐊᖅ ᑐᖏᓕᕆᔭᐅᓂᐊᕐᒪᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖓᓐᓄᑦ.”
– ᑐᐄᓐ ᓯᒥᑦ, ᐃᑦᓯᕙᐅᑕᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ, ᐃᓄᕕᐊᓗᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ
ᑕᒪᑐᒪ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓂᖓ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕈᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐊᓚᒃᑲᐃᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᕆᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᑐᑦᓯᐊᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᓗ ᑎᒍᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᐅᓪᓗᒥ ᐱᐅᓯᐅᓕᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᑲᓱᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᓯᒪᔪᒥ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᒥ. ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥᓕ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᖅᑕᕗᑦ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ, ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒋᓂᐊᖅᓱᒋᓪᓗ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓃᑦᑐᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᓕᒫᒥᓪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᕗᑦ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᓅᑖᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ.
– ᐊᓗᑭ ᑰᑦᑎᖅ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᖄᖅ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᑐᙵᕕᒃ
“ᐊᖏᖅᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᒪᓕᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᑯᑖᑦᑐᒥ ᐃᓱᒪᑦᓯᐊᕋᓱᐊᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᖃᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᒃᑯᓪᓗ. ᒫᓐᓇᓕ ᓈᒻᒪᓕᖅᑐᖅ ᓯᕗᒧᐊᒍᑦᑕ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓗᑕ ᓴᐳᑎᔭᐅᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐱᐅᓕᔭᐅᖁᓪᓗᒍᓗ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕗᑦ ᒪᒃᑯᑦᑐᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ.”
− ᓵᓕ ᒍᐊᑦ ᐊᖏᔪᑦᓯᖅ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ, ᒪᑭᕕᒃ ᑯᐊᐸᕇᓴᓐ
“ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕗᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᓇᖅᑐᒦᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᔭᒐᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ. ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ ᒐᕙᒪᒃᑯᖏᑦ ᑐᙵᓱᑦᑎᑦᓯᕗᑦ ᑕᒪᑐᒥᖓ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᔭᐅᓚᐅᕐᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖅ, ᐅᑉᐱᕈᓱᓪᓚᕆᒃᑲᑦᑕ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᑎᑦᓯᓂᐊᕐᒪᑦ, ᖁᕝᕙᖅᑎᕆᓗᓂᓗ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑕᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓗᓂᓗ ᐃᓄᑦᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖅ. ᑖᑦᓱᒥᖓᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᓕᕈᑦᑕ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᖃᑎᒌᑦᓯᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᓂᖅᓴᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᒥᓕᒫᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓐᓂ.”
– ᔪᕼᐋᓇᔅ ᓛᒻᑉ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᒻᒥ
“ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐸᐅᖃᑕᐅᖏᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᓕᒫᒥ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᒪᒃᑯᑦᑐᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᐃᓕᑕᖅᓯᕗᒍᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕗᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᓇᖅᑐᒦᓐᓂᐅᓴᒻᒪᑦ ᔭᒐᐃᔭᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᓱᓂ ᐊᕙᒍᓪᓗ ᐸᓯᔭᑦᓴᐅᒐᑕ ᑐᙵᓱᑦᑎᑕᕗᓪᓗ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥᒃᑯᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᓂᕆᐅᓐᓂᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑐᒍᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓗᒍ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᔭᕗᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᑎᒍᑦ ᓯᕗᒧᐊᑦᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑦ ᓴᙱᓕᕆᐊᖅᑕᐅᓗᓂᓗ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕗᑦ ᑭᖑᕚᑦᑎᓐᓅᖓᓗᓂ.”
– ᑯᕆᔅᑐ ᒫᕐᑎᓐ−ᓚᐸᓐᔅᑭ, ᐊᖏᔪᖅᑳᖅ, ᑲᓇᑕᓕᒫᒥ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᒪᒃᑯᑦᑐᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ
ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᑐᓴᐅᒪᑎᑦᓯᔩᑦ
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᐱᖅᑯᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᐅᔾᔪᑎᑦ
ᓱᒻᒪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᕙ?
ᒫᓐᓇᐅᔪᖅ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖃᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖓᓂ. ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐅᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᒋᔭᐅᔪᒥ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᔪᖅ ᐊᑲᐅᙱᓕᐅᕈᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᑐᓴᐅᒪᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒥᕐᕌᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᖃᑎᒌᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ, ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᖅ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᕐᓗᓂ ᐊᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ−ᓇᓕᐊᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᓇᓱᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᓱᕉᑎᖃᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᒃᑕ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᖏᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ.
ᓱᒻᒪᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑑᖓᔪᖅ ᓂᕈᐊᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᕙ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ?
ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒃᓴᖅᓯᐅᕈᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᑐᙵᕝᕕᒋᓂᐊᕐᓗᒍ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐅᑯᐊᖑᔪᑦ:
- ᐊᒃᓱᕉᑕᐅᙱᓪᓗᓂ ᖃᕋᓴᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᓇᕿᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ/ᐅᖄᓚᐅᑎᕋᓛᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ/ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᔾᔪᑎᔅᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᖅᑯᑎᖏᑦ − ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᔾᔪᑎᔅᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᖅᑯᑎᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᕋᓴᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᓇᕿᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᓯᒪᔭᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᒋᐊᖃᙱᑦᑕᖏᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᓇᕿᑦᑕᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᓂᒃ ᓈᓴᐅᑎᓂᓪᓘᓃᑦ
- ᒪᒃᑯᓐᓂᖅᓴᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᒍᑦ−ᐊᑐᖅᑐᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᒫᓂᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ
- ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᓂᕈᐊᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓚᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᓂᐱᒃᑯᑦ (ᐆᑦᑑᑎᒋᓗᒍ f, ch, rh) ᑕᐃᒪᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓚᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᖃᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᒃᑯᑕᓂᒃ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᒍᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᒃᑯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ
ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᐅᒪᓗᒍ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓚᒋᙱᑦᑕᖓ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑑᖓᔪᒃᑯᑦ. ᐱᑐᖃᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᓯᓚᕐᔪᐊᓕᒫᒥ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᓄᓇᓕᐸᐅᔭᒥ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ.
ᓱᓇᐅᕙᑦ ᐃᑲᔫᓯᐊᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ?
ᐃᑲᔫᓯᐊᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᒐᓚᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑕᖏᖅᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᓂᐱᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᑕᐃᒫᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᒃᑕ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᒥ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᒪᓕᓪᓗᒍ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᖏᔭᑎᒍᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒥᑎᒍᑦ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᙱᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᖅ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᕐᓗᒍ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᖃᑎᒌᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒥᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᑭᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒥᕐᕌᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᓄᑦ. ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᑕᐃᒪᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ. ᐱᓗᐊᖅᑐᒥᒃ, ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᐊᕐᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒧᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖃᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᑦᑎᓐᓂᖅᓴᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ.
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᖑᕙ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ?
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᖑᔪᖅ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᐃᓂᐊᕐᓗᓂ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓗᓂ ᓇᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ. ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᐃᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓇᖐᙱᓪᓗᓂ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ − ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑲᔪᓯᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᖏᑦ ᒪᓕᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ. ᓂᕆᐅᔪᖃᙱᓚᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐱᑐᖃᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᙳᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕆᖃᑦᑕᒥᑎᒍᑦ. ᐱᑐᖃᐅᓂᖅᓴᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᑎᑕᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᒪᒃᑯᓐᓂᖅᓴᓄᑦ ᓯᕗᕚᓄᑦ.
ᑭᒃᑯᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᕙᐅᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᑦ?
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᖏᓐᓂᑦ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᔩᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᐊᕈ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᖃᑎᒌᒃᑐᑦ. ᑐᕌᒋᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑮᓐᓄᒃ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᖑᔪᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᒥᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᓂᐱᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᒥᐅᑕᓄᑦ.
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᖅ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᑐᙵᕝᕕᖃᖅᐸ ᓇᓕᐊᒃᑕ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ?
ᑐᑭᓯᐊᓇᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᑐᕌᒋᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᓗᓂ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᓇᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᔭᖅ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓂᖓ ᓂᐱᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓕᒫᑎᒍᑦ − ᐃᓚᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᓂᐱᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᙱᓐᓂᖅᓴᒃᑯᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ − ᐅᖃᓕᒫᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᒻᒥᑎᒍᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᒥᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍ ᒪᓕᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᐃᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᐱᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᕆᔭᖏᑦ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑐᑭᖃᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑐᐃᓐᓇᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᒪᓕᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᓄᖅ ᓂᐱᖓ ᐅᖃᖅᑕᐅᓲᖑᓂᖓ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑐᒧᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐊᔾᔨᒋᕋᓚᖕᓂᐊᖅᑕᖓ ᐃᓚᒌᓐᓂᖓ ᖃᓄᖅ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓂᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᓄᖅ ᓂᐱᖓ ᐅᖃᖅᑕᐅᓲᖑᓂᖓᒍᑦ.
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᐸ ᐃᓄᒃᑑᓕᖅᑎᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ?
ᓇᓕᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ, ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᙶᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑑᓕᖅᑎᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᑎᑎᕋᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑎᑐᑦ.
ᐱᖃᕆᐊᖃᖅᐳᖓ ᖃᕋᓴᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᓈᓴᐅᑎᓂᒡᓘᓐᓃᑦ?
ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᑐᓲᖑᔪᑦ ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ, ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᑕᖃᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᒃᑯᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᓂᒃ ᓈᓴᐅᑎᓂᒡᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐱᖃᕆᐊᖃᙱᑦᑐᑦ.
ᖃᓄᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᐸ?
ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ, ᑕᐃᒃᑯᓄᖓ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕌᓂᒃᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᓯᐊᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᓱᖏᐅᑎᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᒃᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᑐᙵᕝᕕᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐹᒃᑯᑦ−ᐊᑐᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂ ᑲᑎᒪᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒃᓴᖅᓯᐅᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᑲᑎᒪᔩᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ. ᐃᓱᒪᒃᓴᖅᓯᐅᕐᓂᖅ ᐸᕐᓇᐅᑎᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᒻᒥᒃᑯᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᓕᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᔭᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᒥᕐᕈᐊᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓄᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᐅᓂᐊᕐᓗᓂ. ᐊᑯᓂᐅᙱᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔨᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᓄᖓ ᐱᔪᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᖑᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᐱᖅᓱᕐᓂᖅᐸᑕ.
ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑐᑭᖃᖅᐸ ᑐᙵᕝᕕᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᒪᓕᒃᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᒪᓕᒃᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ?
ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᓕᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᖃᙱᑦᑐᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕐᒧᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᒪᓕᒃᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᒪᓕᒐᓂᒃ. ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᓂᐱᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ.